Journal title : Effectiveness of adaptive façade with helicon mechanisms on energy values and natural lighting in Indonesia
Author : Aldhi Nugraha Anantama, Agus Hariyadi
The annual growth of energy consumption in both residential and public buildings has been established globally as been significantly increasing. Therefore, the proposed active and passive building designs are intended to provide convenience and greatly reduce the high energy requirements, before considering mechanical systems (associated with fossil fuel-based energy consumption). This encourages the development of a new design, such as the Climate Adaptive Building Shell (CABS). This study aims to assess the effectiveness of CABS with Helicone mechanisms on energy and natural lighting, as well as its influential factors. The parametric modeling simulation method was applied to compare the energy and natural lighting aspects, between the adaptive and static facades of the Helicone mechanism. The results indicated that the adaptive facade was more effective than the static, based on energy and natural lighting. It was also found that the 30° adaptive configuration with the Helicone mechanism was the most effective. These results were influenced by several factors, i.e., the small turning angle (30° and 150° (-30°) and the anticlockwise direction of the adaptive facade rotation.
Research Methodologies :
This study applied the Simulation Modeling method, by making a reality copy and representing the model operation. Modeling and simulation were performed using parametric-based software, i.e., Rhinoceros 5, Grasshopper 0.9, Ladybug 0.0.69, and Honeybee 0.0.66. These systems were used to facilitate simulations carried out on adaptive facades with various movement configurations. However, this condition differs from a static facade with one configuration.
The first research object is a test room model with a certain dimensions and properties. This model represented a workspace in a building positioned on the ground floor, and was directly adjacent to another room on the roof and all walls, except those with aperture. Adaptive facade model was modeled as having six square slats with a dimension of 0.5 m on each side, as the utilized Helicone mechanism started from a no-rotation condition (state 0). Furthermore, the full rotation started from the bottom to the top bar (state 6), as the movement scheme and application.
Result and Conclusion :
Based on this study, adaptive facades with the Helicone mechanism were more effective than static configurations. This produced lower values of 20%, 25%, and 6% in the OTTV, Illumination, and Glare simulations, respectively. The study also obtained an adaptive configuration that produced the most effective value in all aspects of the simulation, i.e., a facade (adaptive) with a trigger angle of 30°. This configuration was superior to others, based on producing the highest value of optimization in meeting comfort standards, especially natural lighting. It also had a pattern of low simulation values in the initial states, and steadily increased until the final levels, which was an ideal condition for an adaptive facade.
The simulation analysis further formulated the factors that affected the effectiveness of the adaptive configuration with Helicone mechanism, i.e., the size of the angle and rotational direction. This angle was closely related to the ratio of openness or void/solid adaptive facade. Furthermore, this configuration with small trigger angles (30° and 150° (-30°)) produced a constant void/solid ratio between the states. It allowed stable simulation value that was ideal as an adaptive facade, when compared to configurations with large angles (60°, 120° (-60°), and 90°). The rotational direction factor also affected the effectiveness of the adaptive facade. Based on this study, the adaptive configuration with anticlockwise rotation (30°) was dominant in producing lower OTTV, Illumination, and Glare simulation values. It was also more effective than facades with clockwise rotation (-30°). This was assumed because the anticlockwise and clockwise configurations caused the adaptive facade panels to open to the East and West, respectively.